The second plaque is smaller, almost an afterthought. For years Nissim had written his father and sister letters from the war, sweet notes that assured them, through mentions of people they knew or horses they loved to ride, that he was far from danger. It would have certainly impressed guests to the house and you can certainly see the influence of the Petit Trianon on the staircase and black and white marble floor. "It is a truth universally acknowledged," Jane Austen famously observed, "that a single man in possession of a good fortune must be in want of a wife." Truth be told, that world never quite existed, and the mansion on the Rue de Monceau was always a refuge from an intolerable reality. In 1942, Béatrice de Camondo—the sole overseer of one of the most significant collections of 18th-century masterpieces ever amassed—was arrested in her sumptuous Paris apartment. The Camondos, a Sephardic Jewish clan with roots all over the Mediterranean, were a decidedly European family at the proverbial end of Europe. I’ve thought of Béatrice so much since visiting the museum and learning more about her history. Lorsqu'il décède en 1935, il lègue l'hôtel et ses collections à l'Union Centrale des Arts Décoratifs (U.C.A.D., aujourd'hui devenue MAD) et à l’État français. she wrote. At the beginning of the 19th century, the Camondo family founded a bank that became one of the most important banks of the Ottoman Empire. All that is left is the art—the Aubusson tapestries, the Sèvres tureens. Musée Nissim de Camondo was created in 1935 when Count Moïse de Camondo bequeathed his Parisian mansion to the Museum of Decorative Arts. As it was for many people in his milieu, Jewishness for Moïse de Camondo was a question not so much of religion as of community, a primary line of defense against an unforgiving and even hostile world. Si certains établissements sont décidés par les pouvoirs publics, comme Le Louvre voulu par autorités de la Révolution, d'autres sont le fruit d'une initiative privée. … As Sephardic Jews, their ancestors were presumably among the masses expelled from Catholic Spain in 1492, only to settle across the Mediterranean world. His demands went into much deeper detail than that. In the end there was far more to lose,although Moïse could never have imagined exactly how much. See all 5 Musee Nissim de Camondo tours on Tripadvisor Jours de fermeture : l'établissement est ouvert tout au long de l'année 5 jours par semaine, à l'exception du 25 décembre, 1er janvier, 1er mai. To visit the Musée Nissim de Camondo is to confront the haunting juxtaposition of arresting beauty and the incomprehensible rupture of the Shoah, the past that will not pass. These pieces had their specific places in Moïse's house, but they were also all that could anchor a man otherwise adrift in grief and disbelief. It houses some of the best period furniture and artworks from all around the world. Jewishness, for Moïse de Camondo, was a question not so much of religion as of community, a primary line of defense against an unforgiving and even hostile world. "It's the only decoration on the fireplace in my living room," he wrote to a different curator in 1928, rejecting yet another gallery request. The Musée Nissim de Camondo is beautifully decorated and remains exactly the same way it did when the de Camondo family resided in it. Toute sa vie, Moïse a eu des affinités avec les conservateurs de … However, Musee nissim de Camondo tells the story of the Jewish community of Paris, as well as a celebration of the history of Judaism. You may be able to find more information about this and similar content at piano.io, Watch Watching 'The Apartment' Tells Us About NYC, Why We Should Revisit Bonfire of the Vanities, The Godfather Saga Keeps Pulling Us Back In, Louis Vuitton's New High Jewelry Collection, What It Means to Be a New Yorker in Exile, Les Arts Décoratifs/Paris; Jean Tholance/Les Arts Décoratifs/Paris, Jean Tholance/Les Arts Décoratifs/Paris; Jean-Marie Del Moral/Les Arts Décoratifs/Paris. Musée Nissim de Camondo barometre lange de bourbon.jpg 3,730 × 5,595; 6.57 MB Musée Nissim de Camondo collection 1.JPG 6,000 × 4,000; 6.87 MB Musée Nissim de Camondo cour 2.JPG 6,000 × … Vous aurez vraiment l'impression de voyager dans le temps, et vous vous attendrez à voir surgir au détour d'un couloir domestiques ou riches aristocrates. The former private collection of this family is exhibited here, which mainly consists of 18th-century French furniture. Moïse chose the museum’s name in homage to his son Nissim de Camondo (1892-1917) who had died in WW1 as a pilot in the French army. This, above all else, was the meaning of his magic circle. In the wake of the Crimean War they moved to Paris, where they dazzled society with their wealth and, in the words of one cousin, a "flamboyant Italian title that sounded like that of a character in an Offenbach operetta." A few days later, the museum was visited by Albert Lebrun, then President of France. Book your tickets online for Musee Nissim de Camondo, Paris: See 1,950 reviews, articles, and 725 photos of Musee Nissim de Camondo, ranked No.17 on Tripadvisor among 3,229 attractions in Paris. Sous la IIIème république, la famille commence à acheter des oeuvres d'art, devenant l'une des grandes familles de collectionneurs et rassemblant ce qui deviendra le noyau de la collection. "You know that you are and always will be my dear children… Be wise and calm and obedient, and especially respectful and kind to your father, who loves you as much and even more.". Immortalized in an 1880 portrait by Renoir, Irène—lithe and delicate, but impulsive—was the eldest daughter of one of Paris's wealthiest Jewish financiers, Louis Cahen d'Anvers, an early principal of the bank that later became Paribas. Neither of these actions swayed her decision, and judging from the records that survive, she never looked back. Located in the 8th arrondissement of Paris, once the home of the Camondo family, the mansion now is a museum preserving the late family’s memories and collections. On September 5, 1917, Nissim de Camondo was in an airplane that went down somewhere over Lorraine, behind enemy lines. In the formulation of the historian Tony Judt, the Europe that before the Second World War was "an intricate, interwoven tapestry of overlapping languages, religions, communities, and nations" was "smashed into the dust" by 1945. In life, his project was to build a fortress that would shield him from the immeasurable pain of private life. Kisses to you and Béatrice. More portal to the past than typical museum, Paris’ Nissim Camondo Museum (Musée Nissim De Camondo) is home to one of the world’s best collections of 18th-century decorative arts. "Voilà, my old Bamboula," he wrote, using his nickname for his sister, "good news for you today, no?" Le Camondo, the Musée Nissim de Camondo restaurant Organize your stay in Paris About Us Musée des Arts Décoratifs Plan your visit Presentation Itinerary Views of the Museum Loulou, the restaurant The 107Rivoli boutique Musée Nissim de Camondo … The Musée Nissim de Camondo was inaugurated 21 December 1936, with Béatrice performing the honours. But in the France of the Dreyfus Affair, a 12-year social drama that elicited an unprecedented current of anti-Semitism, the Camondos—publicly prominent, exceedingly wealthy, and foreign-born—were eventually decried for their Jewishness as much as for their opulence. Hotels near Musee Nissim de Camondo: (0.35 km) L'Edmond Hotel, Paris (0.51 km) La Villa Haussmann (0.58 km) Hotel Augustin - Astotel (0.60 km) Hotel Bowmann (0.57 km) Idol Hotel; View all hotels near Musee Nissim de Camondo on Tripadvisor If you book with Tripadvisor, you can cancel up to 24 hours before your tour starts for a full refund. Dedicated to his son Nissim de Camondo, this beautiful building, designed in the style of the Petit Trianon at Versailles, houses the Count’s major collection of 18th century decorative art. On September 5, 1917, Nissim de Camondo was in an airplane that went down somewhere over Lorraine, behind enemy lines. Musée Nissim de Camondo is housed in an 18th century style mansion, tucked on a quiet street overlooking Parc Monceau, and once you push the heavy door and walk inside, you feel transported back in time.In these times of physical distancing, when visitors are sparse, the sensation is eerie, and one is almost tempted to tiptoe around, worried of bothering the owners. Huge collection, amazing choice, 100+ million high quality, affordable RF and RM images. There were even reports that she was going horseback riding in the Bois de Boulogne well into 1942 accompanied by a German officer, an emissary of the same regime that would ultimately demand the liquidation of her vast fortune. En 1917, Nissim de Camondo, le fils chéri de Moïse à qui était dédié la collection, meurt à la guerre. According to Tripadvisor travelers, these are the best ways to experience Musee Nissim de Camondo: Paris Museum Pass 2 Days (From $71.72) Paris Museums 4 Days Pass (From $92.12) Cet établissement restitue l'ambiance feutrée et élégante du XVIIIème siècle à travers une collection d'oeuvres d'art, peintures, objets décoratifs... Visitez-le grâce au Paris Museum Pass qui vous donne accès à de nombreux musées et monuments parisiens et franciliens pendant deux jours. Le musée doit son ambiance unique et particulièrement immersive à la … Le musée propose d’apprécier ce type d'art d’une manière plus agréable que d'ordinaire, puisque les éléments décoratifs ne sont pas placés dans de simples vitrines comme cela est le cas au Musée des Arts Décoratifs, dont il fait partie. Afternoon Amble in Paris - The Londoner When I … Yet this type of public presentation was Moïse's aim only after his death. The opulent decorations in the living room, Musee Nissim de Camondo, Paris. Like the Camondos, the Cahen d'Anverses were passionate collectors of 18th-century objets d'art, not to mention the proud owners of a château outside Paris, which they always said was a love lair for Louis XV and Madame de Pompadour. The emphasis was his own. C'était l'une des plus somptueuses demeures du Paris élégant de la Belle Epoque. This is the power of the Musée Nissim de Camondo. You will be very kind to take their measurements and to make two small models for said lanterns to hang in our model of the staircase." Their principal home was eventually Constantinople, where, in the early 19th century, they became the most prominent Jewish banking family in the Levant, the socalled "Rothschilds of the East." Billet commun musée des Arts décoratifs et musée Nissim de Camondo (valable 4 jours), 20€ (TR : 16€). See all 6 Musee Nissim de Camondo tours on Tripadvisor The Musée Nissim de Camondo has a graceful and elegant entry and staircase that seemed to deserve its own post. In our opinion, this museum is a lot more charming than the Musée des Arts Décoratifs (Museum of Decorative Arts), which it is part of and we definitely recommend it. "Considering my great age," he wrote, "it would be painful for me to separate so long from an object that is dear to me." Le comte doit trouver un nouveau légataire. The museum is housed in the 20th-century residence of the Camondo family. C’est un de nos petits musées parisiens coup de coeur, idéal à visiter en famille. The house, after all, is a temple of gilded abundance, a labyrinth of rooms showcasing the finest craftsmanship of France's "ancien régime"—Louis XVI chaises, ormolu clocks, and fanciful canvases by the likes of Elisabeth Vigée-Lebrun and François-Hubert Drouais. Accueillant, avec sa terrasse et sa pelouse ombragée, le jardin est un lieu de quiétude où règne l'harmonie d'une nature maîtrisée. "Dear Mr. Sergent," he wrote in July 1911, "following our conversation this morning, I would like you to go visit M. Fabre, an antiques dealer on the Rue de Rennes, to see two lanterns. Amid the devastating chaos of real life, the house provided Moïse with a project whose every detail he could control when he had little control over anything else. Of course it would be. 20 reviews of Musée Nissim de Camondo "Exquisite museum situated within walking distance of the Parc Monceau. La passion de Moïse de Camondo, le XVIIIème siècle français, explique aujourd'hui la thématique du musée. In the France of the Dreyfus Affair, the anti-Semites hated Jews for their race, but progressives often hated the Jewish religion for what they perceived to be its antiquated affront to secular modernity. Of course, many other memorials tell the story of the Shoah in its unfathomable immensity, but the Musée Nissim de Camondo, now a branch of Les Arts Décoratifs, is not exactly a memorial. Des expositions temporaires sont occasionnellement organisées. Le musée est situé rive droite, dans le 8ème arrondissement, à proximité du Parc Monceau. In any case, she had said her goodbyes to her children decades before their deaths, in a letter dated March 1903. Acquisition is almost always a means of self-recognition, and collecting a means of selfportraiture. During World War II, the Comte lost the remaining of his family in a conc… le petit bureau, aussi appelé Salon Anglais, donne sur la cour d'honneur. Très impliquée dans la vie politique européenne, la famille a notamment participé au financement de la réunification de l'Italie. 18 août 2017 - Découvrez le tableau "Musée Nissim de Camondo" de Sophie Clouard sur Pinterest. Arriving in Paris at the end of the Second Empire, brothers Abraham-Behor and Nissim settled on the rue de Monceau. Il abrite une collection exceptionnelle de mobilier et d'objets d'art du XVIII siècle français dans un hôtel particulier préservé dans l'état où il était habité au début du XX siècle. … As an increasingly powerful far right urges a return to the nationstate as a way of governing—and also of being—few in Europe today seem to remember the catastrophes that creeds of exclusion can engender. Moïse de Camondo was a banker and a passionate collector of French furniture and objects d’art from 18th century France. En pénétrant dans ce bel hôtel particulier du début du XXème siècle, vous changez d'époque pour vous retrouver plongé au coeur du XVIIIème siècle français, dans une grande maison aristocratique de l'Ancien Régime. Book your tickets online for Musee Nissim de Camondo, Paris: See 1,946 reviews, articles, and 725 photos of Musee Nissim de Camondo, ranked No.18 on Tripadvisor among 3,161 attractions in Paris. À l'origine peintes en bleu canard, elles ont verdi avec le temps. Hotels near Musee Nissim de Camondo: (0.35 km) L'Edmond Hotel, Paris (0.51 km) La Villa Haussmann (0.58 km) Hotel Augustin - Astotel (0.60 km) Hotel Bowmann (0.57 km) Idol Hotel; View all hotels near Musee Nissim de Camondo on Tripadvisor No need to register, buy now! Hôtels près de Musée Nissim de Camondo : (0.35 Km) Hôtel L'Edmond, Paris (0.51 Km) La Villa Haussmann (0.58 Km) Hôtel Augustin - Astotel (0.60 Km) Hotel Bowmann (0.57 Km) Idol Hotel; Voir tous les hôtels près de Musée Nissim de Camondo … Although he never acknowledged his pain in his extensive correspondence, his letters from those years evince an aesthetic autocracy. Moïse was notified via telegram, which at first he … Le Musée Nissim de Camondo doit son nom au fils de Moïse, décédé en 1926 lors d'un accident d'avion alors qu'il était célibataire. The novelist Emile Zola, for instance, later satirized their lavish compound on the Rue de Monceau as "a profusion, an explosion of riches," echoing the widespread impression of the family. But with possession comes a predilection for control, an obsession with the order of things. And so was an entire generation of cosmopolitan Europeans, a firmament of millions in which the Camondos were merely one family. Le Musée Nissim de Camondo est l'une des luxueuses demeures grand-bourgeoises encore conservées du XXe siècle parisien. In 1942, Béatrice de Camondo—the sole overseer of one of the most significant collections of 18th-century masterpieces ever amassed—was arrested in her sumptuous Paris apartment. Moïse was notified via telegram, which at first he refused to believe. In response Moïse managed his grief by holding close the things in his collection, which could always be kept where they belonged. In a 1914 letter he described for Béatrice the "pretty gray horse" of a French general. Restaurant Le Camondo et sa belle terrasse : mardi-samedi, midi-minuit ; dimanche, toute la journée. Having made a fortune in his business ventures, in 1914 Count Moïse de Camondo built a mansion in the style of the Petit Trianon at Versailles and furnished it with rare examples of 18th-century furniture, … Most accurately, the Camondos were citizens of the world, a clan for whom national boundaries were little more than imaginary lines. This collection includes works by Garde-Meuble de … le salon bleu est une belle pièce, spacieuse et lumineuse, qui doit son nom à la couleur des boiseries. The museum opened in 1935. It is the universe of one family, not of 6 million people, and its central question is whether it is ever possible to understand one's times. The museum preserves with devastating intimacy the eternal darkness of the 20th century. Plusieurs pièces, qui recèlent de trésors, attendent les visiteurs du Musée Nissim de Camondo : Lors de votre visite, ne manquez pas non plus les jardins dessinés par Achille Duchêne. Her parents largely disowned her, and Moïse, who retained custody of Nissim and Béatrice, limited her access to them. "Goodbye, my dear Papa. Durant toute sa vie, Moïse caresse un rêve : celui de reconstituer le plus fidèlement possible une demeure aristocratique française du XVIIIème siècle. Every item on this page was chosen by a Town & Country editor. Nine.". The Musée Nissim de Camondo is an elegant house museum of French decorative arts located in the Hôtel Camondo, 63, rue de Monceau, at the edge of the Parc Monceau, in the 8th arrondissement of Paris, France.The mansion was built in 1911 by the Comte Moïse de Camondo… La demeure familiale se situe en bordure du parc Monceau, dans le 8ème arrondissement. Jours d'ouverture : le musée est ouvert du mercredi au dimanche. It is housed in the beautiful Louis XV style mansion he constructed between 1911 and … The museum is housed in the 20th-century residence of the Camondo family. "The most profound enchantment for the collector," he wrote in a 1931 essay, "is the locking of individual items within a magic circle in which they are fixed as the final thrill, the thrill of acquisition, passes over them." It is a site of memory, a place that preserves with devastating intimacy the eternal darkness of the 20th century. Building one of the finest collections of ancien régime decorative arts was a way for a Jew from Constantinople to show an indisputable loyalty to France, his adopted homeland. The Camondos were true cosmopolitans, at home everywhere equally but nowhere entirely. Moïse de Camondo, after all, left all his worldly goods to the country he loved: the country his son died defending and the country that later sentenced his daughter to death. Le musée Nissim-de-Camondo, inauguré en décembre 1936, est situé dans le 8 arrondissement de Paris, dans l'hôtel Moïse de Camondo, construit par René Sergent entre 1911 et 1914 en bordure du parc Monceau. Billet commun musée des Arts décoratifs et musée Nissim de Camondo (valable 4 jours), 20€ (TR : 16€). In 1911 he built a mansion to house his collection and as a family residence. Moïse de Camondo was no exception, choosing a bride 12 years his junior, Irène Cahen d'Anvers. Whether they realize it or not, they see in the objects they pursue some aspect of themselves. Ce établissement offre une expérience véritablement immersive. Town & Country participates in various affiliate marketing programs, which means we may get paid commissions on editorially chosen products purchased through our links to retailer sites. As much as Moïse sought to demonstrate his fidelity to France and its heritage, it was always imperative, in his eyes, that he live in a decidedly Jewish world, a constellation of intermarried families for whom solidarity was survival. To collect is to create. The Musée Nissim de Camondo and its priceless priceless collection testify to the unspeakable. In May 1935, just six months before he died, Moïse apologized to Herbert Winlock, then the director of the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, for his refusal to send even a small portion of his collection across the Atlantic. réservations : +33 (0) 1 45 63 40 40. This content is created and maintained by a third party, and imported onto this page to help users provide their email addresses. Le Camondo, restaurant, bar, terrasse, situé au 61 bis rue de Monceau dans le 8ème arrondissement de Paris. Cliquez ICI pour en savoir plus sur les mesures sanitaires mises en œuvre et sur les réponses aux questions fréquentes. The same was true of his beloved bust by Jean-Antoine Houdon. For a man who had lost his wife, his son, and his world, the objects were the only permanent presence, the only things in Moïse's life that never abandoned him. It is now a museum named in memory of his father--and his son. His son's death was the great trauma of Moïse's life, and it left him a broken man. He donated the home to Paris's Decorative Arts society as a museum (Musée Nissim de Camondo) in honor of the loss of his son Nissim in World War I. When you pass into the courtyard of the Musée Nissim de Camondo, home to one of the world's most exquisite collections of 18th century objets d'art, what you notice first is a pair of marble plaques on the wall of the porte cochère. That was undeniably true, and Moïse, utterly humiliated by the divorce, devoted the rest of his life to ensuring that his children grew up in as solid and serene an environment as he could create. But it was not to be. Le restaurant Le Camondo vous ouvre ses portes. Worse, despite repeated entreaties to the French military, Moïse could not recover his son's body until after the war: Nissim had essentially vanished. After giving birth to two children—Nissim in 1892 and Béatrice in 1894—Irène left her husband for the man who ran the Camondos' stables. Il est fermé le lundi et le mardi. Le musée doit son ambiance unique et particulièrement immersive à la volonté du donateur : rien ne devait bouger, et l'oeuvre de sa vie … Le Musée de Nissim de Camondo est une demeure grand-bourgeoise décorée avec soin, encore préservée dans l’état où elle était habitée. "In the end, my darlings, you know how much I love you! And if it was in the language of material things that prominent French Jews were often attacked, it was ultimately in the same language that many Jews would eventually respond. If you book with Tripadvisor, you can cancel up to 24 hours before your tour starts for a full refund. Most important, it would show that he belonged. 14 Not-So-Secret Corners of the New Whitney Museum, The Private Museums of Billionaire Art Collectors. Venus à Paris à la fin du Second Empire, … Doing so would ensure not only the preservation of the Camondo name but also its ancient identity from generation to generation. We recommend booking Musee Nissim de Camondo tours ahead of time to secure your spot. Informations COVID-19 : Nos visites et activités ne sont pas opérées du 1er oct. au 25 déc. But catastrophe found her in the end: She was executed in a gas chamber at Auschwitz on January 4, 1945, just two weeks before Soviet forces liberated the camp. It’s extraordinary collection reveals Camondo’s … Built by Moise de Camondo, a wealthy banker, he bequeathed his possessions to honour the death of his son in World War 2. La famille Camondo a fondé au début du XIXème siècle une banque qui s'est imposée comme l'une des plus riches et influentes de tout l'Empire Ottoman. À l’intérieur, on y découvre des meubles et des objets d’art français du XVIIIe siècle qu’a collectionnés Moïse de Camondo tout au long de sa vie. "And I cannot deprive myself of it for such a long period." Ainsi, du 16 mars au 17 juin 2018, vous pouvez découvrir une exposition consacrée à Suzanne Lalique et la scène. Instead of simply walking through the space at their leisure, visitors … The Musée Nissim de Camondo is an elegant house museum of French decorative arts located in the Hôtel Camondo, 63, rue de Monceau, at the edge of the Parc Monceau, in the 8th arrondissement of Paris, France.The nearest Paris Métro stops are Villiers or Monceau on Line 2. In addition to the collection, the meticulously … But Moïse could not control everything, and his perfect world began to crumble from the inside yet again. In that sense, Moïse turned out to be right about the objects in his collection and the strange, inexplicable power they wielded. Les oeuvres sont nombreuses et variées : tableaux, sculptures, mobilier, horloges, objets de décoration... Vous n'y trouverez que des objets rares, voire introuvables, amassés au fil des décennies par un collectionneur richissime et habité par une passion sans fin pour l'art. We recommend booking Musee Nissim de Camondo tours ahead of time to secure your spot. As fragile a they seemed, they were all that was solid in a universe that melted into air. European history has somehow vanished, and it no longer seems fanciful to wonder whether in its absence disaster will strike again. Book your tickets online for Musee Nissim de Camondo, Paris: See 1,948 reviews, articles, and 725 photos of Musee Nissim de Camondo, ranked No.18 on Tripadvisor among 3,165 attractions in Paris. In his letters to Moïse, Nissim always stressed his safety: "We are in an area excessively calm with regard to artillery," he wrote in 1915. Passionate about the 18th century, the Count de Camondo had a private mansion built in the style of the Petit Trianon at Versailles. If one is studying or interested in the Jewish heritage, this … Musée Nissim de Camondo This grand and elegant mansion and former home of the Camondo family that overlooks Parc Monceau in the 8th arrondissement differs from other homes in Paris that have been transformed into museums. When Moïse passed away in 1935, he bequeathed the Camondo home at 63 rue de Monceau, and its entire collection, to the state via Les Arts Décoratifs. A short walk from the Parc Monceau, the museum houses a spectacular collection of French decorative art from the second half of the 18th century. Voici toutes les informations pratiques pour préparer votre visite. Book your tickets online for Musee Nissim de Camondo, Paris: See 1,946 reviews, articles, and 725 photos of Musee Nissim de Camondo, ranked No.18 on Tripadvisor among 3,161 attractions in Paris. Situé dans un magnifique hôtel particulier en bordure du Parc Monceau, il abrite la collection particulière d’objets d’art du 18ème siècle constituée par Moïse de Camondo. Balzac's Sylvain Pons, Proust's Charles Swann, and, most of all, Huysmans's Jean des Esseintes are all presented as victims of an insatiable affliction, the obsessive compulsion to possess. The Musée Nissim de Camondo is a museum that is located on the edge of the Parc Monceau in Paris. À la fin du Second Empire, la famille s'installe à Paris : leur banque y est déjà établie depuis 1869. Parmi les lieux insolites et incontournables, le Musée Nissim de Camondo. But their citizenship was never Turkish: First they were Austrian, then they were subjects of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, and, finally, they were made counts of the Kingdom of Italy after that country's unification. At the beginning of the German occupation the consummate socialite had somehow managed to avoid the fate of so many other French Jews, and she carried on in surreal splendor for more than a year while the local authorities deported thousands upon thousands to their deaths. In January 1913 he wrote Sergent, of the same staircase, "As the two galleries were done in wood, it would be absolutely illogical to do this particular staircase, which brings them together, in different materials.". Elles peuvent être réservées en ligne dès maintenant pour des dates ultérieures.